劳拉·西蒙斯是 心理学院, 告诉太阳2注册登录中心如何克服压力, our response to it 和 how we can learn to cope better with the inevitable stress in our lives.
Stress is a normal part of daily life 和 usually occurs if excessive dem和s are placed on us, 太阳2注册登录中心觉得自己应付不来, or we are exposed to a particularly stressful situation.
The things that cause stress, also known as stressors, can vary depending on the individual. Stress can arise from life events, such as getting married 和 starting a new job. There may also be stressors at home, such as childcare 和 financial struggles, or at work with a lack of support from management 和 an intense workload. 在某人的生活, there may be several sources of stress that are combined, which may make them feel particularly overwhelmed.
Sometimes we have physical symptoms which indicate when we are feeling stressed. This occurs due to the stress response, a series of physical changes in the body. It starts with the activation of hormones, 比如皮质醇, which prepares the individual to fight or flee the stressor. The fight or flight response is described in psychology as an evolutionary response to threatening stimuli in our environment 和 allows us to fight or flee in order to survive. When the stress response is activated, hormones 比如皮质醇 和 adrenaline increase blood pressure 和 heart rate to prepare the individual to take action.
Due to physiological changes in the body, people may experience an upset stomach, 头痛和精力不足. 然而, there may be some occasions where stress is not as easy to identify 和 may disguise itself as an inability to concentrate, 哭泣, 令人担忧的, avoiding certain situations 和 feeling like you can’t enjoy yourself. Therefore, it is important to underst和 your own, personal reaction to stressful stimuli.
Why does stress affect some people more than others?
压力对人的影响不同, which means that what some perceive as a stressful event or situation, 其他人可能不. Individuals may also be more vulnerable to experiencing stress 和 may have a different threshold to what they can experience before they suffer the negative consequences of stress. 研究 has highlighted several factors that may determine whether that person experiences stress. 例如, people who feel they have control over a situation may experience less stress than someone who feels they have no control.
Problems arise if someone experiences stress over a long period of time (also known as chronic stress). There is evidence to suggest that people are more likely to become ill because, 随着时间的推移, stress exhausts the body 和 weakens the immune system. Too much stress has been linked to several health outcomes, such as anxiety 和 depression in addition to heart attacks 和 strokes. High levels of stress also have an impact on organisations, with research suggesting a relationship between higher levels of stress 和 sickness absence i.e. when a person is absent from work due to illness.
Coping with stress relates to several different strategies that people may use to reduce the amount of stress they experience. 研究 suggests that these coping mechanisms can be influenced by an individual’s personality 和 previous experiences of coping. There are several coping strategies that you can use to help cope with stress, whether this occurs at work or at home.
- Seek social support – this can be as simple as talking to your manager at work, your partner or your friends about the event or situation that is causing you stress
- Breathing exercises – try the 4-7-8 method, inhale for four, hold for seven 和 exhale for eight
- Organise your time – if you feel overwhelmed by tasks, 试着列个清单, prioritising your tasks 和 make a schedule
- Focus on your hobbies – read a book, take a walk or go to the gym
- Enjoy the outdoors - Find your local park 和 walk, w和er around your town centre. Enjoy the scenery that surrounds you.
与压力, developing coping strategies is based on the individual, 和 what works for one person may not work for another. Stress is also a natural part of our daily lives, 和 our aim is not to eliminate it but to manage it so that it doesn’t have a negative effect on our wellbeing.
Laura Simmons is a Lecturer on Psychology BSc at The 太阳2注册登录中心. 心理学在 法医心理学学士学位, 临床心理学学士学位, Occupational/Business Psychology BSc, 运动与运动心理学学士 和 咨询心理学学士学位
All views expressed in this blog are the Academic’s own 和 do not represent the views, policies or opinions of the 太阳2注册登录中心 or any of its partners.